Tag Archives: extract

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Clear vs. Pure: How Fallacies and Ignorance of Extraction Misrepresent the Cannabis Flower

By Dr. Markus Roggen
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Demand for cannabis extracts, in particular vaping products, is at an all-time high. People want good oil, and they want to know something about the quality of it. It is therefore time to take a step back and consider the process from plant to cartridge. What is the current industry standard for cannabis extraction, what constitutes quality and where might we need to make some adjustments?

Right now, “clear” oil is hot. Customers have been led to believe that a pale gold extract is synonymous with the best possible cannabis concentrate, which is not necessarily the case. Producing a 95% pure THC extract with a translucent appearance is neither a great scientific feat nor a good representation of the whole cannabis flower. Moreover, it runs counter to the current trend of all-natural, non-processed foods and wellness products.

“My carrots are organic and fresh from the farmers market, my drink has no artificial sweeteners and my honey is raw, but my cannabis oil has undergone a dozen steps to look clear and still contains butane.”Cannabis is a fascinating plant. It is the basis of our livelihood, but more importantly, it enhances the quality of life for patients. The cannabis plant offers a plethora of medicinally interesting compounds. THC, CBD and terpenes are the most popular, but there are so many more. As of the most recent count, there are 146 known cannabinoids1. Cannabinoids are a group of structurally similar molecules2, including THC and CBD, many of which have shown biological activity3.

Then there are terpenes. These are the smaller molecules that give cannabis its distinct smell and flavor, over 200 of which have been identified in cannabis4. But wait, there’s more. The cannabis plant also produces countless other metabolites: flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols and amides5. All these components mixed together give the often-cited entourage effect6,7.

Current industry standards for cannabis oil extraction and purification stand in marked contrast to the complexity of the plant’s components. Due to an unsophisticated understanding of the extraction process and its underlying chemistry, cannabis oil manufacturers frequently produce oil of low quality with high levels of contamination. This necessitates further purifications and clean up steps that remove such contaminants unfortunately along with beneficial minor plant compounds. If one purifies an extract to a clear THC oil, one cannot also offer the full spectrum of cannabinoids, terpenes and other components. Additionally, claiming purities around 95% THC and being proud of it, makes any self-respecting organic chemist cringe8.

Precise control of extraction conditions leads to variable, customized concentrates. THC-A crumble, terpene-rich vape oil, THC sap (from left to right).

The labor-intensive, multi-step extraction process is also contrary to “the clean-label food trend”, which “has gone fully mainstream”9. Exposing the cannabis flower and oil to at least half a dozen processing steps violates consumer’s desire for clean medicine. Furthermore, the current practice of calling supercritical-CO2-extracted oils solvent-less violates basic scientific principles. Firstly, CO2 is used as a solvent, and secondly, if ethanol is used to winterize10, this would introduce another solvent to the cannabis oil.

We should reconsider our current extraction practices. We can offer cannabis extracts that are free of harmful solvents and pesticides, give a better, if not full, representation of the cannabis plant and meet the patients’ desire for clean medicine. Realizing extracts as the growth-driver they are11 will make us use better, fresher starting materials12. Understanding the underlying science and learning about the extraction processes will allow us to fine-tune the process to the point that we target extract customized cannabis concentrates13. Those, in turn, will not require additional multi-step purification processes, that destroys the basis of the entourage effect.

The cannabis industry needs to invest and educate. Better extracts are the result of knowledgeable, skilled people using precise instruments. Backroom extraction with a PVC pipe and a lighter should be horror stories of the past. And only when the patient knows how their medicine is made can they make educated choices. Through knowledge, patients will understand why quality has its price.

In short, over-processing to make clear oil violates both the plant’s complexity and consumers’ desires. Let us strive for pure extracts, not clear. Our patients deserve it.


[1] Prof. Meiri; lecture at MedCann 2017

[2] ElSohly, Slade, Life Sciences 2005, 539

[3] Whiting, et. al., JAMA. 2015, 2456

[4] Andre, Hausman, Guerriero, Frontiers in Plant Science 2016, 19

[5] Hazekamp, et. al., Chemistry of Cannabis Chapter 3.24; 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

[6] Ben-Shabat, et al.; Eur J Pharmacol. 1998, 23

[7] Mechoulam, et al.; Nat Prod Rep. 1999, 131

[8] Medical and Research Grade chemicals are generally of purities exceeding 99.9%

[9] Bomgardner, Chemical & Engineering News 2017, 20

[10] Winterization is the industry term for what is correctly referred to as precipitation.

[11] Year-over changes to market shares in Colorado 2015 to 2016: Concentrates 15% to 23%; Flower 65% to 57%, BDS Analytics, Marijuana Market Executive Report, 2017

[12] Further reading about the whole extraction process: B. Grauerholz, M. Roggen; Terpene and Testing Magazine, July/Aug. 2017

[13] Further reading about optimizing CO2 extraction: M. Roggen; Terpene and Testing Magazine, May/June 2017, 35

PA Announces First 12 Grower/Processor Permit Winners

By Aaron G. Biros
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The Pennsylvania Department of Health announced today the first 12 winners of growing and processing permits for the state’s medical cannabis program. At first glance, it appears those who won the permits have teams with experience in successful cannabis operations elsewhere in the country. The permit winners now have six months to become operational, according to a press release.

The list of permit winners by region

According to that press release, John Collins, director of the Pennsylvania Office of Medical Marijuana, received 457 applications in total, with 177 prospective grower/processors and 280 for dispensaries. “With today’s announcement, we remain on track to fulfill the Wolf Administration’s commitment to deliver medical marijuana to patients in 2018,” says Collins. “The applications from the entities receiving permits were objectively reviewed by an evaluation team made up of members from across commonwealth agencies.”

A sample score card for the applicants

In the populous Southeast region of Pennsylvania, grower/processor permits were awarded to Prime Wellness of Pennsylvania, LLC, and Franklin Labs, LLC. Prime Wellness is a Connecticut-based enterprise. According to Steve Schain, Esq., attorney at the Hoban Law Group, Franklin Labs includes team members from Garden State Dispensary, a successful medical cannabis operation in New Jersey.

Two of the businesses that won permits are actually from Illinois, not Pennsylvania. GTI Pennsylvania, LLC (Green Thumb Industries), has a strong presence in Illinois and Nevada. AES Compassionate Care LLC lists their business state as Illinois as well.

Steve Schain, Esq. practicing at the Hoban law Group

“Based on the first phase award of grower/processor licensees both the strength and weakness of Pennsylvania’s program has been highlighted,” says Schain. “Many licensee recipients are affiliated with existing national marijuana-related businesses with excellent track records for operating in a transparent, compliant and profitable manner.” The applications were rated on a scorecard out of 1,000 points. “Unfortunately missing from this initial phase license winners are purely regional enterprises who may have been unable to compete with national concerns’ resources and checkbooks.” According to Schain, some of the more significant areas on the scorecard reflect a diversity plan, community impact statement, business history and capacity to operate, capital requirements and operational timetable. Capital requirements are the applicants’ demonstrable financial resources comprised of at least $2 million in capital and $500,000 in cash. All of the growers are required to grow indoors, not in a greenhouse or on an outdoor farm.

There is also a ten-day appeals process for scorecards that will undoubtedly be utilized by companies that were not successful in their bids. The next phase, according to Schain, of Pennsylvania’s Medical Marijuana Program regards “Clininical Registrants” in which grow/processor and dispensary licensure will be awarded to eight applicants, which, if able to satisfy requirements including demonstrating $15 million in capital, will be authorized to open up to six dispensary locations.

 

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Budtenders: Providing Education and Customer Service

By Rachel Stires
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Budtenders represent the front line of any cannabis dispensary, and as such they are responsible for fostering a valuable customer service experience that will have clients returning in the future. However, the role of budtender goes much deeper than simply providing customer service. If you want to develop a profitable business with deeply embedded customer loyalty, you can do no better than to hire an exceptional team of budtenders to provide your patrons with useful information and a memorable customer service experience that will keep them coming back for repeat sales.

Offering Education for All Customers

Perhaps the most important role the budtender plays in any dispensary is providing the customer with useful knowledge that will help them make an informed purchase. For many people, legal cannabis is still a very new concept, and there are a good deal of customers who have never tried cannabis products during prohibition. For these customers, it will be essential that an experienced budtender walk them through everything they need to know and help them choose a strain that will be best suited to their needs. In addition to dosing and strain advice, budtenders can help explain how various paraphernalia works, as pipes and bongs will likely be foreign to them.

For less seasoned smokers, information on dosing can be the difference between a positive and negative experience. This is primarily a concern with edibles due to the long lasting nature of their effects, but can benefit other methods of delivery as well. The effects and potency of different strains can vary widely, so it can be difficult to judge how much to ingest. Though it is impossible to overdose on cannabis, using too much can have a negative impact on the experience. By offering experienced insight into the product they are selling, budtenders can ensure that the customer will have a more positive experience with cannabis, leading to lasting relationships with your company.

Budtenders can provide plenty of value for more experienced consumers as well. The fact of the matter is, there is an endless sea of different types of cannabis products on the market, and learning all of them requires more research than many cannabis consumers are willing to invest. Whether a customer uses cannabis for medicinal or recreational purposes, they will likely have developed preferences when it comes to what they like to smoke. It is important that budtenders be knowledgeable enough to direct the customer to a product that will live up to their expectations.

A client suffering from anxiety shouldn’t be recommended towards an energetic sativa, for example, as this will likely give them a bad case of paranoia, resulting in a negative experience that could send their business elsewhere. Likewise, a daytime smoker probably won’t be happy with a relaxing Indica that will put them to sleep. Budtenders need to keep up with the various strains that are in stock at all times and be able to direct their customers to the right product.

Budtender Presentation and Service

Of course, being knowledgeable about cannabis is a necessity, but a good budtender must also be able to convey this information in a manner that educates the customer. The best budtenders will be approachable and prepared to answer any question thrown their way. They should be able to present the information like a teacher, a quality that will put customers at ease and leave them confident they are in good hands.

Dispensaries can set themselves apart from the competition by choosing their budtenders wisely. It is important to hire budtenders who present themselves in a highly professional manner including down to their manners and clothing. When a customer buys cannabis from a store, they may have preconceived notions about the budtenders working there. By hiring knowledgeable, personable and professional budtenders, businesses can tackle negative stereotypes surrounding the newly emerging cannabis industry and improve customer satisfaction.

If you’ve been to a lot of cannabis dispensaries, you’ll know that some of them might feel like a drug dealer just leased a building and set up shop, business as usual. With legalization comes the opportunity to legitimize cannabis consumption to a degree not possible before, and many dispensaries are helping to change the perception of the industry by catering to more refined crowds with attractive shops and a professional atmosphere. A good team of budtenders can go a long way towards establishing a dispensary as an upscale business.

Overall, A great budtender is an invaluable asset to any dispensary, and staffing your business with them is your best bet at building lasting relationships with your customers. Budtenders with expansive knowledge of cannabis strains, effects, and dosage, as well as a professional and personable demeanor are essential to the success of a dispensary, and without them a business might suffer.

Implementing a HACCP Plan in Cannabis Processing

By Aaron G. Biros
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Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) is a robust management system that identifies and addresses any risk to safety throughout production. Originally designed for food safety through the entire supply chain, the risk assessment scheme can ensure extra steps are taken to prevent contamination.

The FDA as well as the Food Safety and Inspection Service currently require HACCP plans in a variety of food markets, including high-risk foods like poultry that are particularly susceptible to pathogenic contamination. As California and other states develop and implement regulations with rigorous safety requirements, cannabis cultivators, extractors and infused product manufacturers can look to HACCP for guidance on bolstering their quality controls. Wikipedia actually has a very helpful summary of the terms referenced and discussed here.

Dr. Markus Roggen, vice president of extraction

The HACCP system consists of six steps, the first of which being a hazard analysis. For Dr. Markus Roggen, vice president of extraction at Outco, a medical cannabis producer in Southern California, one of their hazard analyses takes place at the drying and curing stage. “When we get our flower from harvest, we have to think about the drying and curing process, where mold and bacteria can spoil our harvest,” says Dr. Roggen. “That is the hazard we have to deal with.” So for Dr. Roggen and his team, the hazard they identified is the potential for mold and bacteria growth during the drying and curing process.

The next step in the HACCP system is to identify a critical control point. “Correct drying of the flower will prevent any contamination from mold or bacteria, which is a control point identified,” says Dr. Roggen. “We also have to prevent contamination from the staff; it has to be the correct environment for the process.” That might include things like wearing gloves, protective clothing and hand washing. Once a control point is identified, the third step in the process is to develop a critical limit for those control points.

A critical limit for any given control point could be a maximum or minimum threshold before contamination is possible, reducing the hazard’s risk. “When we establish the critical limit, we know that water activity below 0.65 will prevent any mold growth so that is our critical limit, we have to reach that number,” says Dr. Roggen. The fourth step is monitoring critical control points. For food manufacturers and processors, they are required to identify how they monitor those control points in a written HACCP plan. For Dr. Roggen’s team, this means using a water activity meter. “If we establish the critical control point monitoring, water activity is taken throughout the drying process, as well as before and after the cure,” says Dr. Roggen. “As long as we get to that number quickly and stay below that number, we can control that point and prevent mold and bacteria growth.”

One of the cultivation facilities at Outco

When monitoring is established and if the critical limit is ever exceeded, there needs to be a corrective action, which is the fifth step in a HACCP plan. In Dr. Roggen’s case, that would mean they need a corrective action ready for when water activity goes above 0.65. “If we don’t have the right water activity, we just continue drying, so this example is pretty simple,” says Dr. Roggen. “Normal harvest is 7 days drying, if it is not dry enough, we take longer to prevent mold or bacteria growth.”

The sixth step is establishing procedures to ensure the whole system works. In food safety, this often means requiring process validation. “We have to double check that our procedure and protocols work,” says Dr. Roggen. “Checking for water activity is only a passive way of testing it, so we send our material to an outside testing lab to check for mold or bacteria so that if our protocols don’t work, we can catch those problems in the data and correct them.” They introduced weekly meetings where the extraction and cultivation teams get together to discuss the processes. Dr. Roggen says those meetings have been one of the most effective tools in the entire system.

Dr. Roggen’s team identified worker safety as a potential hazard

The final step in the process is to keep records. This can be as simple as keeping a written HACCP plan on hand, but should include keeping data logs and documenting procedures throughout production. For Dr. Roggen’s team, they log drying times, product weight and lab tests for every batch. Using all of those steps, Dr. Roggen and his team might continue to update their HACCP plans when they encounter a newly identified hazard. While this example is simplistic, the conceptual framework of a HACCP plan can help detect and solve much more complex problems. For another example, Dr. Roggen takes us into his extraction process.

Dr. Roggen’s team, on the extraction side of the business, uses a HACCP plan not just for preventing contamination, but for protecting worker safety as well. “We are always thinking about making the best product, but I have to look out for my team,” says Dr. Roggen. “The health risk to staff in extraction processes is absolutely a hazard.” They use carbon dioxide to extract oil, which carries a good deal of risks as well. “So when we look at our critical control points we need to regularly maintain and clean the extractor and we schedule for that,” says Dr. Roggen.

Gloves, protective clothing, eyewear and respirators are required for workers in the extraction process.

“My team needs respirators, protective clothing, eyewear and gloves to prevent contamination of material, but also to protect the worker from solvents, machine oil and CO2 in the room.” That health risk means they try and stay under legal limits set by the government, which is a critical limit of 3,000 ppm of carbon dioxide in the environment. “We monitor the CO2 levels with our instruments and that is particularly important whenever the extractor is opened.” Other than when it is being opened, Dr. Roggen, notes, the extractor stays locked, which is an important worker safety protocol.

The obvious corrective action for them is to have workers leave the room whenever carbon dioxide levels exceed that critical limit. “We just wait until the levels are back to normal and then continue operation,” says Dr. Roggen. “We updated our ventilation system, but if it still happens they leave the room.” They utilize a sort of double check here- the buddy system. “I took these rules from the chemistry lab; we always have two operators working on the machine on the same time, never anyone working alone.” That buddy check also requires they check each other for protective gear. “Just like in rock climbing or mountain biking, it is important to make sure your partner is safe.” He says they don’t keep records for employees wearing protective gear, but they do have an incident report system. “If any sort of incident takes place, we look at what happened, how could we have prevented it and what we could change,” says Dr. Roggen.

He says they have been utilizing some of these principles for a while; it just wasn’t until recently that they started thinking in terms of the HACCP conceptual framework. While some of those steps in the process seem obvious, and it is very likely that many cannabis processors already utilize them in their standard operating procedures and quality controls, utilizing the HACCP scheme can help provide structure and additional safeguards in production.

Q&A with Dan Anglin: Cannabis Safety is an American Duty

By Aaron G. Biros
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Dan Anglin, a Marine Corps veteran and chairman of the Colorado Cannabis Chamber of Commerce, is the founder and chief executive officer of Americanna, an infused products business in Colorado with a heavy focus on regulatory compliance, consistent dosing and product safety. The company was the very first to implement the THC stamp, a requirement for all infused products in Colorado this coming October 1st.

dananglin
Dan Anglin, founder & CEO of Americanna

As a veteran of Operation Desert Storm, Anglin began his career as a legislative analyst in Arizona, and then moved to Colorado where he worked for the Colorado Legislative Council. Soon after, he became a lobbyist for the Colorado Association of Commerce and Industry. With a focus on health policy, he became the primary lobbyist for anything related to healthcare at the state level.

After running his own lobbying firm, he was hired by EdiPure, which was at the time the largest infused product manufacturer, to lobby against an amendment in the state legislature that would have all but shut down the infused products industry. Within six months, he was made a partner and co-owner of EdiPure for almost three years where he focused on regulatory compliance and legislative matters. In April of 2015, Anglin left EdiPure to buy Boulder Pharma with Frank Falconer, rebranding the company as Americanna making primarily edible products.AMERICANNA_LOGO_Vintage_FINAL

According to him, over the past few years, public opinion has grown in favor of differentiating cannabis products from other food products beyond just the packaging. Anglin said he saw this coming and embraced it as a core concept of his business model. Americanna produces gummies in the shape of a cannabis leaf with the THC stamp on each individual gummy. “This is a matter of public safety that you can clearly tell it is a cannabis product by its shape and symbol,” says Anglin. “We should be proud of cannabis products as an expression of American liberty, it is our duty not to hide it in an unrecognizable food product, but celebrate it with a clear shape and stamp, providing for consumer safety.” In this Q&A, we sit down with Dan Anglin to learn about his quality and safety controls, manufacturing processes and why his business embodies American freedom.

CannabisIndustryJournal: How do you see what you are doing as exercising your American liberties?

Dan Anglin: I served my country and protected the rights of Americans overseas. Because the people of Colorado have chosen this [adult use cannabis legalization] to be a right expressed in the state constitution, I feel that every day our 38 employees come to work and make cannabis products, we are exercising our rights as citizens of Colorado and of the United States.

AmericannaTeam
The Americanna Team

The adult use side of the cannabis industry is a true expression of liberty in choice. This is what freedom is all about! In the past five years, the United States has given more and more groups of people more freedoms and liberties; this is another group of people that believe they deserve rights, in this case the liberty to consume cannabis freely.

This is an issue of states’ rights too. The people of Colorado voted to make the adult use of cannabis a right in their state constitution. We are abiding by the Cole Memo by doing everything we can to protect public safety. There is still a long way to go, but the fact that my employees and I are paying taxes and selling this in a regulated environment is absolutely an expression of our American liberty.

CIJ: Walk us through some of your quality controls in manufacturing infused products.

Dan: We have a contract manufacturer with a white label agreement, so our food products are of the same quality as any food product you would find in major retailers. Quality controls begin as soon as we unpack the food product, making sure it has been stored at the right temperature with all of the right conditions. We toss any products that do not meet our quality standards. Post-infusion, we go into packaging and separate them into flavors. As packagers are putting them into the child resistant packaging as required by law, they are doing QC checks on every single gummy.

americana dummiesThe most important part of our quality control system is the testing for potency, homogeneity and microbial contamination. Post-harvest, the cannabis is tested and after it is extracted, the product is tested again but this time also for residual solvents. Once we infuse the product, we test it again. This is so important because making any type of food product requires doing everything you can to prevent bacterial contamination.

CIJ: How do you view cannabis safety as your responsibility?

Dan: Frank and I developed the business based on compliance and consistency. We already comply with rules expected to be enforced six months from now. We want consumers to be able to count on the consistency of the dosing in our products. Our semi-automated process of infusion can precisely dose every single product to ten milligrams. It is an infusion that soaks through the product, not a spray, and is one of the most homogenous products available.

Because we are creating food products, we have the same responsibility as any other food producer. When you make something that people ingest, it is your responsibility to follow health codes that provide guidelines for food handling. Every one of my employees is ServSafe certified. We are treating cannabis as an ingredient in a food product. Food safety is paramount and should be at the top of every infused product manufacturer’s mind.