Tag Archives: experchem-eurofins

teganheadshot
Quality From Canada

Near Infrared, GC and HPLC Applications in Cannabis Testing

By Tegan Adams, Michael Bertone
5 Comments
teganheadshot

When a cannabis sample is submitted to a lab for testing there is a four-step process that occurs before it is tested in the instrumentation on site:

  1. It is ground at a low temperature into a fine powder;
  2. A solution is added to the ground powder;
  3. An extraction is repeated 6 times to ensure all cannabinoids are transferred into a common solution to be used in testing instrumentation.
  4. Once the cannabinoid solution is extracted from the plant matter, it is analyzed using High Pressure Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC). HPLC is the key piece of instrumentation in cannabis potency testing procedures.

While there are many ways to test cannabis potency, HPLC is the most widely accepted and recognized testing instrumentation. Other instrument techniques include gas chromatography (GC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). HPLC is preferred over GC because it does not apply heat in the testing process and cannabinoids can then be measured in their naturally occurring forms. Using a GC, heat is applied as part of the testing process and cannabinoids such as THCA or CBDA can change form, depending on the level of heat applied. CBDA and THCA have been observed to change form at as low as 40-50C. GC uses anywhere between 150-200C for its processes, and if using a GC, a change of compound form can occur. Using HPLC free of any high-heat environments, acidic (CBDA & THCA) and neutral cannabinoids (CBD, THC, CBG, CBN and others) can be differentiated in a sample for quantification purposes.

Near Infrared

Near infrared (NIR) has been used with cannabis for rapid identification of active pharmaceutical ingredients by measuring how much light different substances reflect. Cannabis is typically composed of 5-30% cannabinoids (mainly THC and CBD) and 5-15% water. Cannabinoid content can vary by over 5% (e.g. 13-18%) on a single plant, and even more if grown indoors. Multiple NIR measurements can be cost effective for R&D purposes. NIR does not use solvents and has a speed advantage of at least 50 times over traditional methods.

The main downfall of NIR techniques is that they are generally less accurate than HPLC or GC for potency analyses. NIR can be programmed to detect different compounds. To obtain accuracy in its detection methods, samples must be tested by HPLC on ongoing basis. 100 samples or more will provide enough information to improve an NIR software’s accuracy if it is programmed by the manufacturer or user using chemometrics. Chemometrics sorts through the often complex and broad overlapping NIR absorption.

Bands from the chemical, physical, and structural properties of all species present in a sample that influences the measured spectra. Any variation however of a strain tested or water quantity observed can affect the received results. Consistency is the key to obtaining precision with NIR equipment programming. The downfall of the NIR technique is that it must constantly be compared to HPLC data to ensure accuracy.

At Eurofins Experchem , our company works with bothHPLC and NIR equipment simultaneously for different cannabis testing purposes. Running both equipment simultaneously means we are able to continually monitor the accuracy of our NIR equipment as compared to our HPLC. If a company is using NIR alone however, it can be more difficult to maintain the equipment’s accuracy without on-going monitoring.

What about Terpenes?

Terpenes are the primary aromatic constituents of cannabis resin and essential oils. Terpene compounds vary in type and concentration among different genetic lineages of cannabis and have been shown to modulate and modify the therapeutic and psychoactive effects of cannabinoids. Terpenes can be analyzed using different methods including separation by GC or HPLC and identification by Mass Spectrometry. The high-heat environment for GC analysis can again cause problems in accuracy and interpretation of results for terpenes; high-heat environments can degrade terpenes and make them difficult to find in accurate form. We find HPLC is the best instrument to test for terpenes and can now test for six of the key terpene profiles including a-Pinene, Caryophyllene, Limonene, Myrcene, B-Pinene and Terpineol.

Quality Systems

Quality systems between different labs are never one and the same. Some labs are testing cannabis under good manufacturing practices (GMP), others follow ISO accreditation and some labs have no accreditation at all.

From a quality systems’ perspective some labs have zero or only one quality system employee(s). In a GMP lab, to meet the requirements of Health Canada and the FDA, our operations are staffed in a 1:4 quality assurance to analyst ratio. GMP labs have stringent quality standards that set them apart from other labs testing cannabis. Quality standards we work with include, but are not limited to: monthly internal blind audits, extensive GMP training, yearly exams and ongoing tests demonstrating competencies.

Maintaining and adhering to strict quality standards necessary for a Drug Establishment License for pharmaceutical testing ensures accuracy of results in cannabis testing otherwise difficult to find in the testing marketplace.

Important things to know about testing

  1. HPLC is the most recommended instrument used for product release in a regulated environment.
  2. NIR is the best instrument to use for monitoring growth and curing processes for R&D purposes, only if validated with an HPLC on an ongoing basis.
  3. Quality Systems between labs are different. Regardless of instrumentation used, if quality systems are not in place and maintained, integrity of results may be compromised.
  4. GMPs comprise 25% of our labour costs to our quality department. Quality systems necessary for a GMP environment include internal audits, out of specification investigations, qualification and maintenance of instruments, systems controls and stringent data integrity standards.
TeganAdams_Eurofinsexperchem
Quality From Canada

The Great Green North: Canada vs. US in Cannabis Regulations

By Tegan Adams
5 Comments
TeganAdams_Eurofinsexperchem

A lot has been changing quickly in the world of cannabis across North America. While international drug treaties sit back and watch in horror, cannabis and cannabis-infused products have been popping up in households across Canada, on retail shelves and in private delivery services across the US. How each jurisdiction in North America accepts and regulates (or draws a blind eye) to the sale of cannabis is different depending on where you are located. Here are a few key distinctions between the current Canadian and US regulatory approaches to marijuana.

In Canada, cannabis is regulated at the federal level by Health Canada through the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations, (MMPR). The MMPR allows persons to obtain dried cannabis for their own personal medical purposes or for another person for whom they are responsible. To obtain dried cannabis, a person must obtain a medical document from a physician, or nurse practitioner to register as a client with a licensed producer of their choosing. After registering as a client, they are able to order dried cannabis and possess up to a maximum of 150 grams at any one time, depending on the recommendation of their physician. More recently, in 2015, regulations allow the distribution of not only the dried form of cannabis but also their extracted forms.

In the US, at the federal level, cannabis is still 100% illegal. Public statements from the federal administration dictate that they steadfastly oppose legalization of cannabis and other drugs. They are concerned that legalization would increase the availability and use of illicit drugs, and pose significant health and safety risks to all Americans, particularly young people. At the state level, legalization laws are rapidly changing. The office of National Drug Control Policy lists 23 states (a rising number) and Washington DC that have passed laws allowing cannabis to be smoked for a variety of medical conditions. The state laws do not change federal regulation. Many local governments are creating zoning and other restrictions that prohibit dispensaries from operating in their communities. That being said, voters in Alaska, Colorado, Oregon and Washington state support legalizing the sale and distribution of cannabis to adults over 21. There are many differences in the regulation of marijuana within each state, municipality and within the country itself.

Internationally, Canada has a platinum reputation for delivering and regulating quality consumer products. Within the Canadian cannabis industry, many feel Health Canada’s regulatory regime is inaccessible, restricts production to large corporations and limits distribution channels. The average start up cost of even a small licensed facility is around $4-5M CAD. On top of the financial costs, production companies have to compete with the other 2000 or so applicants who have been waiting, in some cases up to two years, to hear back from Health Canada if they will succeed in the licencing application process. In response, Canada has seen many tolerances made to allow dispensaries to distribute marijuana at the municipal level, even though not allowed as per regulation.

Many Canadian dispensaries operate with professional policies and procedures including providing customers with access ID cards and offering physician consults. Vancouver became the first city in Canada to license and regulate marijuana dispensaries. The number of licenses within the city exceeds both Tim Hortons and Starbucks Franchises combined. Many dispensaries provide bar and café settings for people to enjoy a “bong shot” or café au lait infused with cannabis. Licensing dispensaries has become a great financial resource for the city, charging $30,000 CAD per licence. Vancouver’s dispensaries have been a topic of debate across all levels of government. The Health Minister asked Vancouver to shut the dispensaries down, while other municipalities have started to expand the same concept. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), Canada’s federal police force, has started raiding various dispensary locations. Part of the new Prime Minister, Justin Trudeau’s, political platform and claim to fame is to legalize cannabis recreationally across Canada. How the framework will unfold is still in the works and subject not only to local jurisdictional reform but also to international negotiations.


 

Editor’s Note: Eurofins-Experchem has helped submit over 150 MMPR applications to Health Canada and continues to work with 10 of the 27 licensed MMPR producers in Canada. Their regulatory affairs division has started working with companies applying to produce and distribute cannabis in those states, which are new to its sale and distribution. They offer services include writing SOPs, training staff and performing mock inspection audits.