Tag Archives: concentrates

Colorado Issues Safety Advisory; More Pesticides Found In Cannabis

By Aaron G. Biros
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According to a press release issued on Friday, September 22nd, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE), along with the Colorado Department of Revenue (DOR) and the Colorado Department of Agriculture (CDA), issued a public health and safety advisory for cannabis products tainted with pesticide residue.

The advisory was issued after the detection of pesticide residues on retail cannabis plant material and products with cannabis grown by RK Enterprises LTD, doing business as Rocky Mountain Remedies. The CDA confirmed that they detected the pesticide, Avermectin, an insecticide with a relatively high acute toxicity.

When pesticides like this are not on the list approved for use in cannabis cultivation, it is considered an off-label use. According to the press release, some of the products affected include flower, trim, concentrates and infused-products.

Consumers are advised to look at the label of their products and check to see if it matches the license number 403R-00180 and harvest batch numbers r206goldenkush9.11.17 and m206larryog9.11.17. Consumers are told to either dispose of the product properly or bring it back to the retail store where they purchased it.

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Budtenders: Providing Education and Customer Service

By Rachel Stires
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Budtenders represent the front line of any cannabis dispensary, and as such they are responsible for fostering a valuable customer service experience that will have clients returning in the future. However, the role of budtender goes much deeper than simply providing customer service. If you want to develop a profitable business with deeply embedded customer loyalty, you can do no better than to hire an exceptional team of budtenders to provide your patrons with useful information and a memorable customer service experience that will keep them coming back for repeat sales.

Offering Education for All Customers

Perhaps the most important role the budtender plays in any dispensary is providing the customer with useful knowledge that will help them make an informed purchase. For many people, legal cannabis is still a very new concept, and there are a good deal of customers who have never tried cannabis products during prohibition. For these customers, it will be essential that an experienced budtender walk them through everything they need to know and help them choose a strain that will be best suited to their needs. In addition to dosing and strain advice, budtenders can help explain how various paraphernalia works, as pipes and bongs will likely be foreign to them.

For less seasoned smokers, information on dosing can be the difference between a positive and negative experience. This is primarily a concern with edibles due to the long lasting nature of their effects, but can benefit other methods of delivery as well. The effects and potency of different strains can vary widely, so it can be difficult to judge how much to ingest. Though it is impossible to overdose on cannabis, using too much can have a negative impact on the experience. By offering experienced insight into the product they are selling, budtenders can ensure that the customer will have a more positive experience with cannabis, leading to lasting relationships with your company.

Budtenders can provide plenty of value for more experienced consumers as well. The fact of the matter is, there is an endless sea of different types of cannabis products on the market, and learning all of them requires more research than many cannabis consumers are willing to invest. Whether a customer uses cannabis for medicinal or recreational purposes, they will likely have developed preferences when it comes to what they like to smoke. It is important that budtenders be knowledgeable enough to direct the customer to a product that will live up to their expectations.

A client suffering from anxiety shouldn’t be recommended towards an energetic sativa, for example, as this will likely give them a bad case of paranoia, resulting in a negative experience that could send their business elsewhere. Likewise, a daytime smoker probably won’t be happy with a relaxing Indica that will put them to sleep. Budtenders need to keep up with the various strains that are in stock at all times and be able to direct their customers to the right product.

Budtender Presentation and Service

Of course, being knowledgeable about cannabis is a necessity, but a good budtender must also be able to convey this information in a manner that educates the customer. The best budtenders will be approachable and prepared to answer any question thrown their way. They should be able to present the information like a teacher, a quality that will put customers at ease and leave them confident they are in good hands.

Dispensaries can set themselves apart from the competition by choosing their budtenders wisely. It is important to hire budtenders who present themselves in a highly professional manner including down to their manners and clothing. When a customer buys cannabis from a store, they may have preconceived notions about the budtenders working there. By hiring knowledgeable, personable and professional budtenders, businesses can tackle negative stereotypes surrounding the newly emerging cannabis industry and improve customer satisfaction.

If you’ve been to a lot of cannabis dispensaries, you’ll know that some of them might feel like a drug dealer just leased a building and set up shop, business as usual. With legalization comes the opportunity to legitimize cannabis consumption to a degree not possible before, and many dispensaries are helping to change the perception of the industry by catering to more refined crowds with attractive shops and a professional atmosphere. A good team of budtenders can go a long way towards establishing a dispensary as an upscale business.

Overall, A great budtender is an invaluable asset to any dispensary, and staffing your business with them is your best bet at building lasting relationships with your customers. Budtenders with expansive knowledge of cannabis strains, effects, and dosage, as well as a professional and personable demeanor are essential to the success of a dispensary, and without them a business might suffer.

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Terra Tech Expands, Maintains Quality: A Q&A with CEO Derek Peterson

By Aaron G. Biros
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Derek Peterson, chief executive officer of Terra Tech

Terra Tech, with the recent acquisition of Blum, a dispensary in Oakland, and the line of concentrates, IVXX, is sweeping the cannabis industry by setting standards for safety and quality. Terra Tech, publicly traded in the Over-The-Counter market, is well known as an agricultural company, with the subsidiary brand, Edible Garden, selling produce to Whole Foods, Wal-Mart and Kroger’s. In December of last year, we covered Terra Tech’s entrance into the cannabis marketplace and their experience with large-scale, sustainable agriculture. We sit down with Derek Peterson, chief executive officer of Terra Tech, to get an update on their progress and quality controls.

CannabisIndustryJournal: In January, Terra Tech announced revenue guidance of $20-22 million for 2016. Can you share some of your strategy going forward to meet your goals?

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Terra Tech is taking organic and GFSI-certified agricultural practices to growing cannabis

Derek Peterson: We have always played both a long game as well as a short game, meaning while we are building our longer term business, like in Nevada, we are also focusing on short term accretive acquisitions, like we did with Blum in Oakland. We want to make sure we capture short-term revenue growth while we plan our future revenue production. We feel confident about achieving those results.

CIJ: How big of a role does the acquisition of Blum and IVXX brand expansion play in meeting those goals?

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The Oakland location of Blum dispensary

Derek: Blum is a significant factor even though we are only capturing three quarters of revenue considering we closed the deal on March 31st of this year. So for the full year of 2017 we will have growth from this level considering we will be able to report a full year of Blum revenue. IVXX presents us with the best opportunity for growth in the coming years. As the market in California and Nevada grows we can continue to expand our IVXX footprint throughout the state. Being able to wholesale to thousands of other retail facilities affords us a significant opportunity to grow our sales.

CIJ: How do you think the brand of Edible Garden positions you well for expansion in the cannabis industry? 

Poinsettias ready for distribution at Edible Garden facility in Belvidere, New Jersey
Produce ready for distribution at Edible Garden facility in Belvidere, New Jersey

Derek: One of the reasons we were so successful in the Nevada market was because regulators and legislators felt a high degree of confidence in our abilities considering we are USDA organic, Kosher and GFSI-certified. Our traditional agricultural experience has been very synergistic with our cannabis division from both an optics and operational perspective.

CIJ: Could you give us an update on progress in Medifarm LLC in Nevada? And on your distribution plan for IVXX in California?

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IVXX concentrates

Derek: We are continuing to expand our IVXX line throughout the state and increasing our sales force. In addition we will continue to develop new products to distribute into our existing supply chain, like we just did with our new pre filled cartridge line.

We are opening our Decatur location in Las Vegas in early July and Reno and Desert Inn towards the end of August. Our cultivation and extraction facilities should be complete no later than January 2017. We will have our entire infrastructure in place if the recreational bill passes in Nevada this November.

Blum Las Vegas location will open in July
Blum Las Vegas location will open in July

CIJ: Tell us about the role of laboratory testing in your business.

Derek: Laboratories play a significant role, as they are becoming a mandated step in most new legislation around the company. Independent lab testing is extremely important to maintain safe access for consumers and patients. We work primarily with Steep Hill Labs and CW analytics.

CIJ: Can you expand on your integrated pest management and your growing practices?

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Platinum Cookies ready for packaging and labelling

Derek: Well we cannot say organic, however we do cultivate all naturally. We also cultivate traditional produce that we sell to major retailers. We are USDA organic-certified and we implement similar processes in our cannabis cultivation. Pest control is extremely challenging for any farmer but we rely primarily on bio control, meaning the good bugs eat the bad bugs. This has been very effective for us in the cultivation of all our products.

CIJ: How is your business different from the slew of other dispensaries and growers in California?

Consistency in quality standards requires meticulous SOPs
Consistency in quality standards requires meticulous SOPs

Derek: Service and consistency; we have over 42,000 registered patients and our operations team has over 19 years of experience in California. One of the reasons we have become one of the largest dispensaries in the state is because of that experience. In addition, consistency is extremely important. Consumers expect the same product in every other business and ours is no different. If they come in for our Platinum Cookies one month and the next month it has different characteristics you are going to lose patient confidence. So in the front of the house, we are focused on pairing patients’ needs with the correct product and in the back of the house we are focused on providing a meticulously cultivated product, produced at the highest standards.

CIJ: Can you delve into some of the processing for concentrates? How do you meet such rigorous quality standards?

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Extraction equipment in one of the processing facilities for IVXX

Derek: Through research and development, we have engineered a proprietary process in which our solvent profiles used under our proprietary conditions ensures solvent residual levels which are not detected by instrumentation at 3rd party testing agencies such as Steep Hill Labs. In addition, any good scientific method requires repetition and corroboration of results. In order to accomplish this we also rely on random routine testing in which we send out extracts out to other 3rd party testing labs. Proprietary conditions include, but are not limited to, heat, vacuum, agitation, etc. By utilizing the correct amalgamation of solvent profiles, extraction conditions, purging conditions, as well as rigorous quality control standards, we are able to ensure a product that is void of any residual solvents, without sacrificing potency or identity of the cannabinoids and terpenes. Cannabinoids and terpenes are of chief interest when extracting cannabis for patients so that they have access to these essential oils without any of the actual leaf and bud.

All solvents used are the highest grade available to us, which ensures a truly medical product for the patient. In addition, all of our extraction equipment is routinely cleaned and sterilized using medical grade cleaning agents.

AOCS Highlights Cannabis Lab Standards, Extraction Technology

By Aaron G. Biros
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The American Oil Chemists’ Society (AOCS) held its annual conference in Salt Lake City this week, with a track focused on cannabis testing and technology. Cynthia Ludwig, director of technical services at AOCS and member of the advisory panel to The Emerald Test, hosted the two-day event dedicated to all things extraction technology and analytical testing of cannabis.

Highlights in the discussion surrounding extraction technologies for the production of cannabis concentrates included the diversity of concentrate products, solvent selection for different extraction techniques and the need for cleaning validation in extraction equipment. Jerry King, Ph.D., research professor at the University of Arkansas, began the event with a brief history of cannabis processing, describing the physical morphologies in different types of extraction processes.

J. Michael McCutcheon presents a history of cannabis in medicine
J. Michael McCutcheon presents a history of cannabis in medicine

Michael McCutcheon, research scientist at Eden Labs, laid out a broad comparison of different extraction techniques and solvents in use currently. “Butane is a great solvent; it’s extremely effective at extracting active compounds from cannabis, but it poses considerable health, safety and environmental concerns largely due to its flammability,” says McCutcheon. He noted it is also very difficult to get USP-grade butane solvents so the quality can be lacking. “As a solvent, supercritical carbon dioxide can be better because it is nontoxic, nonflammable, readily available, inexpensive and much safer.” The major benefit of using supercritical carbon dioxide, according to McCutcheon, is its ability for fine-tuning, allowing the extractor to be more selective and produce a wider range of product types. “By changing the temperature or pressure, we can change the density of the solvent and thus the solubility of the many different compounds in cannabis.” He also noted that, supercritical carbon dioxide exerts tremendous pressure, as compared to hydrocarbon solvents, so the extraction equipment needs to be rated to a higher working pressure and is generally more expensive.

John A. Mackay, Ph.D., left at the podium and Jerry King, Ph.D., on the right
John A. Mackay, Ph.D., left at the podium and Jerry King, Ph.D., on the right

John A. Mackay, Ph.D., senior director of strategic technologies at Waters Corporation, believes that cannabis processors using extraction equipment need to implement cleaning SOPs to prevent contamination. “There is currently nothing in the cannabis industry like the FDA CMC draft for the botanical industry,” says Mackay. “If you are giving a child a high-CBD extract and it was produced in equipment that was previously used for another strain that contains other compounds, such as CBG, CBD or even traces of THC extract, there is a high probability that it will still contain these compounds as well as possibly other contaminants unless it was properly cleaned.” Mackay’s discussion highlighted the importance of safety and health for workers throughout the workflow as well as the end consumer.

Jeffrey Raber, Ph.D., chief executive officer of The Werc Shop, examined different testing methodologies for different applications, including potency analyses with liquid chromatography. His presentation was markedly unique in proposing a solution to the currently inconsistent classification system for cannabis strains. “We really do not know what strains cause what physiological responses,” says Raber. “We need a better classification system based on chemical fingerprints, not on baseless names.” Raber suggests using a chemotaxonomic system to identify physiological responses in strains, noting that terpenes could be the key to these responses.

Cynthia Ludwig welcomes attendees to the event.
Cynthia Ludwig welcomes attendees to the event.

Dylan Wilks, chief scientific officer at Orange Photonics, discussed the various needs in sample preparation for a wide range of products. He focused on sample prep and variation for on-site potency analysis, which could give edibles manufacturers crucial quality assurance tools in process control. Susan Audino, Ph.D., chemist and A2LA assessor, echoed Wilks’ concerns over sample collection methods. “Sampling can be the most critical part of the analysis and the sample size needs to be representative of the batch, which is currently a major issue in the cannabis industry,” says Audino. “I believe that the consumer has a right to know that what they are ingesting is safe.” Many seemed to share her sentiment about the current state of the cannabis testing industry. “Inadequate testing is worse than no testing at all and we need to educate the legislators about the importance of consumer safety.”

46 cannabis laboratories participated in The Emerald Test’s latest round of proficiency testing for potency and residual solvents. Cynthia Ludwig sits on the advisory panel to give direction and industry insights, addressing specific needs for cannabis laboratories. Kirsten Blake, director of sales at Emerald Scientific, believes that proficiency testing is the first step in bringing consistency to cannabis analytics. “The goal is to create some level of industry standards for testing,” says Blake. Participants in the program will be given data sets, judged by a consensus mean, so labs can see their score compared to the rest of the cannabis testing industry. Proficiency tests like The Emerald Test give labs the ability to view how consistent their results are compared to the industry’s results overall. According to Ludwig, the results were pleasantly surprising. “The results were better than expected across the board; the vast majority of labs were within the acceptable range,” says Ludwig. The test is anonymous so individual labs can participate freely.

The AOCS cannabis working groups and expert panels are collaborating with Emerald Scientific to provide data analytics reports compliant with ISO 13528. “In the absence of a federal program, we are trying to provide consistency in cannabis testing to protect consumer safety,” says Ludwig. At the AOCS annual meeting, many echoed those concerns of consumer safety, proposing solutions to the current inconsistencies in testing standards.

Wellness Watch

Solventless Flower Oil – The Luxury Concentrate

By Dr. Emily Earlenbaugh, PhD.
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As the high-end cannabis market continues to grow, dispensary owners and product manufactures alike seek to fill the growing niche for high-end, luxury cannabis products.

When it comes to concentrates, many people are looking to rosin to fill this luxury niche. But not all rosin is the same, and poorly processed rosin can range from a dark almost burnt tasting sap, to something that’s almost bright orange in color. A poor rosin experience can leave a bad taste in a consumer’s mouth, and discourage them from trying more in the future.

For dispensary operators looking to expand their luxury concentrates, skip the hair-straightener rosin and look for SFO. When it comes to concentrates, nothing is more luxurious than solventless flower oil (or SFO). Like most luxury items, SFO comes at a higher price point than the average gram of oil. But for those in the know, the price is well worth it.
 
What is so great about SFO?
 

Clean: Most concentrates are made using dangerous chemical solvents like butane or propane. This can leave behind toxic heavy metals. SFO is solventless. It is made using a modified Rosin process, which uses only low heat and pressure in the extraction process.

Made From Flowers: Safety is one huge bonus of the method, and I always suggest that patients and recreational users alike avoid concentrates made with solvents. But SFO is also special in that it is made directly from the flowers of the cannabis rather than the trim, hash, or kief, and the process preserves the flowers’ natural terpenes.
 
Feels Better: Terpenes are the compounds in cannabis that give it its smell and taste. Each strain has a unique smell and taste because of it’s terpenes. They also affect the feel of the strain. If you love the way sour diesel tastes and feels, but hate lemon haze, it’s probably because of the terpenes in each.
 
Terpenes can also modify the effects of THC, lessening some of its negative side effects like accelerated heart-rate, paranoia, dry mouth and mental confusion.
 
In most extraction processes, most of the flower’s natural terpenes are destroyed. If you have ever excitedly bought a concentrate of your favorite strain only to find that it doesn’t taste or feel like the flower, it is likely because the terpenes weren’t retained.  
 
Smells and Tastes Amazing: SFO has unprecedented natural terpene retention. This means it tastes incredible and feels like the flower it was made from.
 
Pressed at Low Temperatures: It’s important to note that not all Rosin is SFO. SFO is made using lower temperatures than the hair straightener and t-shirt press rosin that has flooded the market. High temperatures burn off the terpenes that make SFO so delicious. So, if you are making a purchase for your dispensary and you want a concentrate that will really knock your customer’s socks off, make sure the rosin is pressed at low temperatures and made from flower, not hash or kief.
 
Best Terpene Retention: When checking terpene analytics, beware of concentrates that have terpenes added back in. While we can isolate the terpenes we know about, we have only researched a subset of the terpenes in the cannabis plant. If we want to recreate the effect of a particular strain, we need to know all the compounds in it or the recipe won’t be right. Rosin with terpenes added back in tends to taste artificial and take on a brighter orange hue.
 
The most effective way of getting complex flavors and effects like those in the flower, is to preserve the compounds as they are in nature. That is exactly what SFO does.
 
If you are looking for that luxurious concentrate, SFO is bound to be a crowd pleaser with its potent, pleasant effects and clean, fragrant taste. Like many luxury items it is also rare, so finding a good supplier can be tricky.
 
For a great tasting SFO in CA, try out Fleurish Farm’s line of SFO. These Sonoma County rosin makers have perfected the art of terpene retention. Each flavorful option has a unique and complex aroma. And their terpene percentages are some of the highest around ranging from 3-9%.
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BEST Extractions

Defining BEST Extraction

By John A. Mackay, Ph. D.
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Over the next few months, I would like to walk through a series of articles to cover the number of ways to extract potentially pharmaceutically active compounds from cannabis plants. However, in the first article I would like to review concerns being addressed in state regulations: contamination in concentrates with pesticides, mycotoxins, and residual solvents. The next article will cover the most common extraction with two different modes: CO2 versus hydrocarbons.

Currently, there is a lot of focus on the cannabis strain of hemp. This is defined as having less than 0.3% of THC, (the psychoactive compound). To be clear, the science of extraction is eons old, but the current revitalization is due to new scientific inquiry regarding the applications of the cannabis plant.

I am often asked, “What is the ‘best’ extraction for a natural product?” The BEST extraction? The key to this answer is that you must assume unintended consequences until you can prove that they are at least minimized compared to the intended consequences.

I have a suggestion for you to consider and I look forward to your response to it. I also assume the right to adapt and revise it.

Botanical integrity from seed to shelf

Efficacy of the process beyond efficiency, economics, effectiveness

Safety of people and product

Testing for confirmation at each step of process

The hemp industry has changed significantly over the past few years. Just casually flipping through the channels on television, reading a newspaper or magazine, (on any topic – news, business, sports, food and science) and there is some facet of hemp’s value being examined. The reduction of traditional pulmonary intake (smoking) in the legal marketplace can be tracked by sales of these products in the states where it is legal. The balance of ingestion is drastically tipping toward what might still be considered smoking with vaporizer products as well as toward edible consumables. The ingredients in these products come not from just adding the plant to the formulation, but rather a concentrated mixture. This is the difference between adding a raw vanilla and a teaspoon of vanilla extract. The compound getting the most coverage is cannabidiol (CBD), which is the compound derived from cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). The effects of the other compounds in the plant are being studied as well.

Unintended consequences from the concentration – extraction – are something we need to consider seriously as consumers. The labeled use of “natural” is one that is critical, but can be totally nullified by the unintended contamination in the extraction workflow. Years of making sure the hemp adheres to strict growing environment can be destroyed in seconds with the addition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s) by the use of solvent that has these toxic chemicals in them. These come not through intended consequences, but not knowing the stabilizers and other additives in material being added to these previously pure plants.

What if I pour sour milk on a natural granola for breakfast? What if I use water with high lead or contaminated water to pour over natural coffee grind? Not a great way to start the day, but it is no different than using the most premium hemp and unknowingly adding low grade solvents or adding components from cleaning the surfaces of instruments that come in contact with hemp.

Note that, by definition, we are concentrating the material from the hemp plant. From 4,000 grams, we are getting 400 grams of CBDA if it is 10% by weight (and later converted to CBD). That compound is 10 times more concentrated in a solution. What other compounds are now also 10 times or 5 times or 100 times more concentrated? Maybe no “bad” ones, but how do you know that something else is not also in the mixture?

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Figure 1. With each step of concentration of the green balls, so it could be with other components in the mixture.

This is illustrated in the filtering of green balls in Figure 1. As the green balls become a greater and greater percentage of the solution, it is possible that other compounds like pesticides are also increasing in percentage of the extraction solution. The solution is more concentrated and “simpler” versus all of the other things in the original mixture.

The simple answer is in the testing of the components. The labeling of major compounds is only the beginning of what is on the label that you read. Heavy metals? PAH’s? Residual solvents? Pesticides? Molds? And a long list of other material that could come into the process after the plant left its pristine organic farm. Many studies can be read about slip agents in bags, contamination from workers in the workflow, and other sources of inconsistency.

There are a significant number of companies that I have seen that take this very seriously. New companies are being formed that have safety of product at the top of the list of importance. They are building facilities that are sterile and putting standard operating procedures in place that continually test the product along every step to ensure that they are in compliance.

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Figure 2. Science and economics merge when considering all the possible uses of concentrated compounds to final product formulations

Supercritical fluid extraction is GRAS (generally regarded as safe). It is, only as long as the solvent specifications are known, the vendor meets those standards, and the instrument surfaces meet any necessary standards.

Supercritical carbon dioxide is used to clean surfaces of electronics and bones for skin grafts. It is used for the decaffeination of coffee as well as pulling trace amounts of pesticides from soil. It is used to extract antioxidants from krill and the active ingredients from algae as well as oil from core samples deep below the earth. It also extracts the terpenes and CBDA from hemp – as well as possibly anything that has been added to it.

The key take away from this article is to know the BEST extraction.

Botanical integrity from seed to shelf

Efficacy of the process beyond efficiency, economics, effectiveness

Safety of people and product

Testing for confirmation

Taking each of these into consideration will bring the best results for concentrations of hemp products. I hope you can extract the best from your day.