Tag Archives: concentrate

Israeli Cannabis Brand Tikun Olam Expands to US

By Aaron G. Biros
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Tikun Olam is a Jewish concept that addresses social policy, promoting acts of kindness to better society. In Hebrew, it literally means, “repair of the world.” The company by the same name, Tikun Olam Ltd, and now in the United States as T.O. Global LLC, was the first medical cannabis provider in Israel back in 2007. Working with patients, doctors and nurses in clinical trials, they developed 16 strains over the last decade that target alleviating symptoms of specific ailments.

Tel Aviv, Israel, where Tikun Olam has a dispensary

In November 2016, they launched their United States brand, Tikun, in the Delaware medical cannabis program with their partner, First State Compassion Center, a vertically integrated business of cultivation, extraction and retail in Wilmington. After the success of their pilot program, Tikun announced their expansion into the Nevada market with their licensed partner, CW Nevada LLC. Tikun is leveraging its experience with clinical trials and medical research to launch a line of cannabis products focused on health and wellness in the United States. According to Stephan Gardner, chief marketing officer at Tikun Olam, they have the largest collection of medical cannabis data in the world. “Tikun Olam started out as a non-profit, working to bring medication to patients in Israel,” says Gardner. “Opening nursing clinics gave us a tremendous amount of knowledge and data to work on the efficacy of strains developed specifically for targeting symptoms associated with certain conditions.” For example, their strain, Avidekel, was developed years ago as the first high-CBD strain ever created.

cannabis close up
The strain Avidekel being grown in Israel.

In a single-strain extraction, Avidekel has been used to successfully mitigate the symptoms associated with neurological conditions, like epilepsy in children, and they have the data to demonstrate that efficacy. “The American market needs some sort of guidance on how these cannabinoid and terpene profiles in certain strains can truly assist patients,” says Gardner. “We have been tracking and monitoring our patients with clinical and observational data in one, six month and annual follow ups, which are data we can use to guide the needs in the US.”

Their expansion strategy focuses heavily on the health benefits of their strains, not necessarily targeting the recreational market. “As a wellness brand in Nevada, we are positioned to work first and foremost in the medical market,” says Gardner. “Our wellness brand can cater to people looking for homeopathic remedies for things like inflammation issues, sleep disorders or pain relief for example,” says Gardner. “You will not see us going out there catering to the truly recreational market; the benefits of what our strains can do is marketed from a wellness perspective.” A cannabis product with high-THC percentages is not unique, says Gardner, but their approach using the entourage effect and proven delivery mechanisms is. “While higher THC might appeal to the rec market, that is not exactly how we will promote and position ourselves,” says Gardner. “We want to be a dominant force in the wellness market.”

Best practices include quality control protocols

That effort requires working within the US regulatory framework, which can be quite complicated compared to their experience in Israel. “We have to understand the Israeli market and American market are completely different due to the regulatory regimes each country has in place,” says Gardner. “We understand the efficacy of these products and want to educate customers on how they might benefit. We don’t want to make claims looking to cure anything, but we found in our data that a lot of symptoms in different ailments, like cancer, PTSD, Crohn’s disease, colitis and IBS, can be alleviated by strains we developed.” In addition to the medical research, they are bringing their intellectual property, cultivation methodologies, evidence-based scientific collaboration and best practices to their partners in the US.

So for Tikun’s expansion in the US, they want to get a medical dialogue going. “We will launch a fully accredited AMA [American Medical Association] program, educating medical practitioners, giving the doctors the understanding of the capabilities of cannabis and what our strains can do,” says Gardner. “We will also share our observational data with doctors so they can work to better guide their patients.” Right now, they are working on the education platform in their pilot program in Delaware. “We plan on using that as a platform to expand into other markets like Nevada,” says Gardner. “And we will be launching the Tikun brand in the Washington market this summer.” Based on the high demand they saw in the Delaware market, Gardner says they plan to launch six unique strains in the American market, with delivery mechanisms like vape products, tinctures, lozenges and topicals in addition to dried flower.

dry cannabis plants
Rows of cannabis plants drying and curing before processing.

While Tikun expands throughout the United States, their sights are set on global expansion, living up to the true meaning of the concept Tikun Olam. They entered a strategic partnership with a licensed producer based in Toronto, bringing their strains, including Avidekel, to the Canadian market. The company they are partnering with, MedReleaf, recently filed for an initial public offering (IPO) on the Toronto stock exchange. Tikun Olam is actively seeking to expand in other parts of the world as well.

Chris English
The Practical Chemist

Accurate Detection of Residual Solvents in Cannabis Concentrates

By Chris English
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Chris English

Edibles and vape pens are rapidly becoming a sizable portion of the cannabis industry as various methods of consumption popularize beyond just smoking dried flower. These products are produced using cannabis concentrates, which come in the form of oils, waxes or shatter (figure 1). Once the cannabinoids and terpenes are removed from the plant material using solvents, the solvent is evaporated leaving behind the product. Extraction solvents are difficult to remove in the low percent range so the final product is tested to ensure leftover solvents are at safe levels. While carbon dioxide and butane are most commonly used, consumer concern over other more toxic residual solvents has led to regulation of acceptable limits. For instance, in Colorado the Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) updated the state’s acceptable limits of residual solvents on January 1st, 2017.

Headspace Analysis

Figure 1: Shatter can be melted and dissolved in a high molecular weight solvent for headspace analysis (HS). Photo Courtesy of Cal-Green Solutions.

Since the most suitable solvents are volatile, these compounds are not amenable to HPLC methods and are best suited to gas chromatography (GC) using a thick stationary phase capable of adequate retention and resolution of butanes from other target compounds. Headspace (HS) is the most common analytical technique for efficiently removing the residual solvents from the complex cannabis extract matrix. Concentrates are weighed out into a headspace vial and are dissolved in a high molecular weight solvent such as dimethylformamide (DMF) or 1,3-dimethyl-3-imidazolidinone (DMI). The sealed headspace vial is heated until a stable equilibrium between the gas phase and the liquid phase occurs inside the vial. One milliliter of gas is transferred from the vial to the gas chromatograph for analysis. Another approach is full evaporation technique (FET), which involves a small amount of sample sealed in a headspace vial creating a single-phase gas system. More work is required to validate this technique as a quantitative method.

Gas Chromatographic Detectors

The flame ionization detector (FID) is selective because it only responds to materials that ionize in an air/hydrogen flame, however, this condition covers a broad range of compounds. When an organic compound enters the flame; the large increase in ions produced is measured as a positive signal. Since the response is proportional to the number of carbon atoms introduced into the flame, an FID is considered a quantitative counter of carbon atoms burned. There are a variety of advantages to using this detector such as, ease of use, stability, and the largest linear dynamic range of the commonly available GC detectors. The FID covers a calibration of nearly 5 orders of magnitude. FIDs are inexpensive to purchase and to operate. Maintenance is generally no more complex than changing jets and ensuring proper gas flows to the detector. Because of the stability of this detector internal standards are not required and sensitivity is adequate for meeting the acceptable reporting limits. However, FID is unable to confirm compounds and identification is only based on retention time. Early eluting analytes have a higher probability of interferences from matrix (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Resolution of early eluting compounds by headspace – flame ionization detection (HS-FID). Chromatogram Courtesy of Trace Analytics.

Mass Spectrometry (MS) provides unique spectral information for accurately identifying components eluting from the capillary column. As a compound exits the column it collides with high-energy electrons destabilizing the valence shell electrons of the analyte and it is broken into structurally significant charged fragments. These fragments are separated by their mass-to-charge ratios in the analyzer to produce a spectral pattern unique to the compound. To confirm the identity of the compound the spectral fingerprint is matched to a library of known spectra. Using the spectral patterns the appropriate masses for quantification can be chosen. Compounds with higher molecular weight fragments are easier to detect and identify for instance benzene (m/z 78), toluene (m/z 91) and the xylenes (m/z 106), whereas low mass fragments such as propane (m/z 29), methanol (m/z 31) and butane (m/z 43) are more difficult and may elute with matrix that matches these ions. Several disadvantages of mass spectrometers are the cost of equipment, cost to operate and complexity. In addition, these detectors are less stable and require an internal standard and have a limited dynamic range, which can lead to compound saturation.

Regardless of your method of detection, optimized HS and GC conditions are essential to properly resolve your target analytes and achieve the required detection limits. While MS may differentiate overlapping peaks the chances of interference of low molecular weight fragments necessitates resolution of target analytes chromatographically. FID requires excellent resolution for accurate identification and quantification.

OHA Addresses Oregon Growing Pains, Changes Testing Rules

By Aaron G. Biros
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Last week, the Oregon Health Authority (OHA) published a bulletin, outlining new temporary testing requirements effective immediately until May 30th of next year. The changes to the rules come in the wake of product shortages, higher prices and even some claims of cultivators reverting back to the black market to stay afloat.img_6245

According to the bulletin, these temporary regulations are meant to still protect public health and safety, but are “aimed at lowering the testing burden for producers and processors based on concerns and input from the marijuana industry.” The temporary rules, applying to both medical and retail products, are a Band-Aid fix while the OHA works on a permanent solution to the testing backlog.

Here are some key takeaways from the rule changes:

Labeling

  • THC and CBD amounts on the label must be the value calculated by a laboratory, plus or minus 5%.

Batch testing

  • A harvest lot can include more than one strain.
  • Cannabis harvested within a 48-hour period, using the same growing and curing processes can be included in one harvest lot.
  • Edibles processors can include up to 1000 units of product in a batch for testing.
  • The size of a process lot submitted for testing for concentrates, extracts or other non-edible products will be the maximum size for future sampling and testing.

    Oregon Marijuana Universal Symbol for Printing
    Oregon Marijuana Universal Symbol for Printing

Sampling

  • Different batches of the same strain can be combined for testing potency.
  • Samples can be combined from a number of batches in a harvest lot for pesticide testing if the weight of all the batches doesn’t exceed ten pounds. This also means that if that combined sample fails a pesticide test, all of the batches fail the test and need to be disposed.

Solvent testing

  • Butanol, Propanol and Ethanol are no longer on the solvent list.

Potency testing

  • The maximum concentration limit for THC and CBD testing can have up to a 5% variance.

Control Study

  • Process validation is replaced by one control study.
  • After OHA has certified a control study, it is valid for a year unless there is an SOP or ingredient change.
  • During the control study, sample increments are tested separately for homogeneity across batches, but when the control study is certified, sample increments can be combined.

Failing a test

  • Test reports must clearly show if a test fails or passes.
  • Producers can request a reanalysis after a failed test no later than a week after receiving failed test results and that reanalysis must happen within 30 days.
Gov. Kate Brown Photo: Oregon Dept. of Transportation
Gov. Kate Brown
Photo: Oregon Dept. of Transportation

The office of Gov. Kate Brown along with the OHA, Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) and Oregon Liquor Control Commission (OLCC) issued a letter in late November, serving as a reminder of the regulations regarding pesticide use and testing. It says in bold that it is illegal to use any pesticide not on the ODA’s cannabis and pesticide guide list. The letter states that failed pesticide tests are referred to ODA for investigation, which means producers that fail those tests could face punitive measures such as fines.

Photo: Michelle Tribe, Flickr
Photo: Michelle Tribe, Flickr

The letter also clarifies a major part of the pesticide rules involving the action level, or the measured amount of pesticides in a product that the OHA deems potentially dangerous. “Despite cannabis producers receiving test results below OHA pesticide action levels for cannabis (set in OHA rule), producers may still be in violation of the Oregon Pesticide Control Act if any levels of illegal pesticides are detected.” This is crucial information for producers who might have phased out use of pesticides in the past or might have began operations in a facility where pesticides were used previously. A laboratory detecting even a trace amount in the parts-per-billion range of banned pesticides, like Myclobutanil, would mean the producer is in violation of the Pesticide Control Act and could face thousands of dollars in fines. The approved pesticides on the list are generally intended for food products, exempt from a tolerance and are considered low risk.

As regulators work to accredit more laboratories and flesh out issues with the industry, Oregon’s cannabis market enters a period of marked uncertainty.

Q&A with Dan Anglin: Cannabis Safety is an American Duty

By Aaron G. Biros
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Dan Anglin, a Marine Corps veteran and chairman of the Colorado Cannabis Chamber of Commerce, is the founder and chief executive officer of Americanna, an infused products business in Colorado with a heavy focus on regulatory compliance, consistent dosing and product safety. The company was the very first to implement the THC stamp, a requirement for all infused products in Colorado this coming October 1st.

dananglin
Dan Anglin, founder & CEO of Americanna

As a veteran of Operation Desert Storm, Anglin began his career as a legislative analyst in Arizona, and then moved to Colorado where he worked for the Colorado Legislative Council. Soon after, he became a lobbyist for the Colorado Association of Commerce and Industry. With a focus on health policy, he became the primary lobbyist for anything related to healthcare at the state level.

After running his own lobbying firm, he was hired by EdiPure, which was at the time the largest infused product manufacturer, to lobby against an amendment in the state legislature that would have all but shut down the infused products industry. Within six months, he was made a partner and co-owner of EdiPure for almost three years where he focused on regulatory compliance and legislative matters. In April of 2015, Anglin left EdiPure to buy Boulder Pharma with Frank Falconer, rebranding the company as Americanna making primarily edible products.AMERICANNA_LOGO_Vintage_FINAL

According to him, over the past few years, public opinion has grown in favor of differentiating cannabis products from other food products beyond just the packaging. Anglin said he saw this coming and embraced it as a core concept of his business model. Americanna produces gummies in the shape of a cannabis leaf with the THC stamp on each individual gummy. “This is a matter of public safety that you can clearly tell it is a cannabis product by its shape and symbol,” says Anglin. “We should be proud of cannabis products as an expression of American liberty, it is our duty not to hide it in an unrecognizable food product, but celebrate it with a clear shape and stamp, providing for consumer safety.” In this Q&A, we sit down with Dan Anglin to learn about his quality and safety controls, manufacturing processes and why his business embodies American freedom.

CannabisIndustryJournal: How do you see what you are doing as exercising your American liberties?

Dan Anglin: I served my country and protected the rights of Americans overseas. Because the people of Colorado have chosen this [adult use cannabis legalization] to be a right expressed in the state constitution, I feel that every day our 38 employees come to work and make cannabis products, we are exercising our rights as citizens of Colorado and of the United States.

AmericannaTeam
The Americanna Team

The adult use side of the cannabis industry is a true expression of liberty in choice. This is what freedom is all about! In the past five years, the United States has given more and more groups of people more freedoms and liberties; this is another group of people that believe they deserve rights, in this case the liberty to consume cannabis freely.

This is an issue of states’ rights too. The people of Colorado voted to make the adult use of cannabis a right in their state constitution. We are abiding by the Cole Memo by doing everything we can to protect public safety. There is still a long way to go, but the fact that my employees and I are paying taxes and selling this in a regulated environment is absolutely an expression of our American liberty.

CIJ: Walk us through some of your quality controls in manufacturing infused products.

Dan: We have a contract manufacturer with a white label agreement, so our food products are of the same quality as any food product you would find in major retailers. Quality controls begin as soon as we unpack the food product, making sure it has been stored at the right temperature with all of the right conditions. We toss any products that do not meet our quality standards. Post-infusion, we go into packaging and separate them into flavors. As packagers are putting them into the child resistant packaging as required by law, they are doing QC checks on every single gummy.

americana dummiesThe most important part of our quality control system is the testing for potency, homogeneity and microbial contamination. Post-harvest, the cannabis is tested and after it is extracted, the product is tested again but this time also for residual solvents. Once we infuse the product, we test it again. This is so important because making any type of food product requires doing everything you can to prevent bacterial contamination.

CIJ: How do you view cannabis safety as your responsibility?

Dan: Frank and I developed the business based on compliance and consistency. We already comply with rules expected to be enforced six months from now. We want consumers to be able to count on the consistency of the dosing in our products. Our semi-automated process of infusion can precisely dose every single product to ten milligrams. It is an infusion that soaks through the product, not a spray, and is one of the most homogenous products available.

Because we are creating food products, we have the same responsibility as any other food producer. When you make something that people ingest, it is your responsibility to follow health codes that provide guidelines for food handling. Every one of my employees is ServSafe certified. We are treating cannabis as an ingredient in a food product. Food safety is paramount and should be at the top of every infused product manufacturer’s mind.

Wellness Watch

Solventless Flower Oil – The Luxury Concentrate

By Dr. Emily Earlenbaugh, PhD.
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As the high-end cannabis market continues to grow, dispensary owners and product manufactures alike seek to fill the growing niche for high-end, luxury cannabis products.

When it comes to concentrates, many people are looking to rosin to fill this luxury niche. But not all rosin is the same, and poorly processed rosin can range from a dark almost burnt tasting sap, to something that’s almost bright orange in color. A poor rosin experience can leave a bad taste in a consumer’s mouth, and discourage them from trying more in the future.

For dispensary operators looking to expand their luxury concentrates, skip the hair-straightener rosin and look for SFO. When it comes to concentrates, nothing is more luxurious than solventless flower oil (or SFO). Like most luxury items, SFO comes at a higher price point than the average gram of oil. But for those in the know, the price is well worth it.
 
What is so great about SFO?
 

Clean: Most concentrates are made using dangerous chemical solvents like butane or propane. This can leave behind toxic heavy metals. SFO is solventless. It is made using a modified Rosin process, which uses only low heat and pressure in the extraction process.

Made From Flowers: Safety is one huge bonus of the method, and I always suggest that patients and recreational users alike avoid concentrates made with solvents. But SFO is also special in that it is made directly from the flowers of the cannabis rather than the trim, hash, or kief, and the process preserves the flowers’ natural terpenes.
 
Feels Better: Terpenes are the compounds in cannabis that give it its smell and taste. Each strain has a unique smell and taste because of it’s terpenes. They also affect the feel of the strain. If you love the way sour diesel tastes and feels, but hate lemon haze, it’s probably because of the terpenes in each.
 
Terpenes can also modify the effects of THC, lessening some of its negative side effects like accelerated heart-rate, paranoia, dry mouth and mental confusion.
 
In most extraction processes, most of the flower’s natural terpenes are destroyed. If you have ever excitedly bought a concentrate of your favorite strain only to find that it doesn’t taste or feel like the flower, it is likely because the terpenes weren’t retained.  
 
Smells and Tastes Amazing: SFO has unprecedented natural terpene retention. This means it tastes incredible and feels like the flower it was made from.
 
Pressed at Low Temperatures: It’s important to note that not all Rosin is SFO. SFO is made using lower temperatures than the hair straightener and t-shirt press rosin that has flooded the market. High temperatures burn off the terpenes that make SFO so delicious. So, if you are making a purchase for your dispensary and you want a concentrate that will really knock your customer’s socks off, make sure the rosin is pressed at low temperatures and made from flower, not hash or kief.
 
Best Terpene Retention: When checking terpene analytics, beware of concentrates that have terpenes added back in. While we can isolate the terpenes we know about, we have only researched a subset of the terpenes in the cannabis plant. If we want to recreate the effect of a particular strain, we need to know all the compounds in it or the recipe won’t be right. Rosin with terpenes added back in tends to taste artificial and take on a brighter orange hue.
 
The most effective way of getting complex flavors and effects like those in the flower, is to preserve the compounds as they are in nature. That is exactly what SFO does.
 
If you are looking for that luxurious concentrate, SFO is bound to be a crowd pleaser with its potent, pleasant effects and clean, fragrant taste. Like many luxury items it is also rare, so finding a good supplier can be tricky.
 
For a great tasting SFO in CA, try out Fleurish Farm’s line of SFO. These Sonoma County rosin makers have perfected the art of terpene retention. Each flavorful option has a unique and complex aroma. And their terpene percentages are some of the highest around ranging from 3-9%.
jMackaypic
BEST Extractions

Busting the Myth: Examining CO2 versus Butane Extraction

By John A. Mackay, Ph. D.
23 Comments
jMackaypic

The basis of anecdotal controversy continues about the use of hydrocarbons versus carbon dioxide. It is important to note that hydrocarbons span a range of phases on the planet earth.

It is important to eliminate the cost of the instruments and the cost of the facilities from this comparison to keep the discussion on specifically the extraction principles.

Source: (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butane#Isomers)
Source: (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butane#Isomers)

Butane is a gaseous hydrocarbon. As you add more carbons to hydrocarbons, they move from gaseous to liquid.

It is also important to note that the same is true of carbon dioxide in its natural form on the earth’s atmosphere, it is a gas. It is nonflammable and used in fire extinguishers.

At typical conditions, carbon dioxide in the supercritical range is similar to hexane (C6H14) and ethyl acetate in its solubility characteristics. Propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10) are gases at normal atmospheric conditions. Both must be manipulated for the extraction of CBDA and CBD. For example, both CO2 and C4H10 must be placed under pressure and then passed through the material to extract the lipophilic terpenes and cannabinoids.

For this short discussion, let’s remove the concern about the different volatilities of the compounds. Hydrocarbons with a spark will be significantly more powerful of an explosion than carbon dioxide (note it could be used to put out the butane fire). The hydrocarbons can be in more configurations and therefore the getting the correct form initially is critical. For example, butane can have all the carbons in a row like a train, or branched like a tree. Those are very different and have different characteristics too. Getting pharmaceutical grade butane is essential to ensure safety. The concern that people have expressed with butane is what is in the other 0.1% for 99.9%. Checking for residual butane is less of a concern than the polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the untested cylinder. Furthermore, in the wrong hands it can be more volatile.

Source: (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide)
Source: (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide)

The critical premise that needs to be considered is the final formulation. Is one solvent significantly more applicable than the other? No. They have different characteristics.

Propane is a common solvent in the spices, flavors and fragrances industry. For example, the extraction of lipids and oils from vegetables and the fatty oils from seeds, it would be an advantage to have a solvent that is totally miscible, i.e. will be totally soluble in a fluid. This is similar to the idea of sugar in hot water versus in water in ice. If an example of cardamom were used comparing CO2 and propane (which is similar to butane), the pressure needed for CO2 would be 100 bar, while propane would be only 20 bar. However the increasing the pressure of the propane from 20 to 50 bar at a constant 25 C, also increases the chlorophyll from 3.4 g/g oil to 10.8 g/g oil. Meanwhile with the more finely tunable CO2 from 80 to 100 to 200 the amount of chlorophyll is negligible (0.36 g/g oil) but at 300 bar it dramatically increases to 4.53 g/g oil.

Additionally the CO2 is a better extraction for the terpenes in the cardamom. The beta-pinine, Cineole, linalool, alpha-terpinol and bornelole. The increase in the propane pressure will allow us to increase the yield of the CO2 (Illes, V, et. al. Proceedings of the Fifth Meeting of Supercritical Fluids, Nice, France, Tome 2, 555-560).

This example is the same with the butane and cannabis. Butane is a stronger solvent and if left too long will continue to pull out more and more polar compounds like chlorophyll. With the fine-tuning of CO2, you can eliminate or you can pull out the chlorophyll if you choose the wrong conditions.

So fast extractions are possible with butane but little control of all the material, while CO2 can be tunable and therefore is able to collect all of the same material, just through a segmented process.