Colorado Issues Safety Advisory Over Pesticide Contamination Concerns

By Aaron G. Biros
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The Colorado Department of Revenue (DOR), in conjunction with the Colorado Department of Agriculture (CDA) and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) issued two public health and safety advisories this morning after they identified pesticide residues on dried cannabis flower, trim, concentrates and infused products, according to the advisory. The contaminated products come from cannabis grown by Rocky Mountain Ways, LLC and Herbal Options, LLC, both doing business as Good Meds.

The Advisory was issued at 10am MT this morning

The advisory cautions consumers to check their labels for the license numbers of the businesses and the harvest batch numbers. They list the license number as, “Medical Optional Premises Cultivation License 403-001116 and/or Medical Marijuana Center License 402-00736.” The harvest batch numbers in question are B11H15.041317-Headband, B11H15.041317-Night Terror OG, and B11H15.041217-Citrix.

The CDA found the presence of off-label pesticides, including Pyrimethanil, Tebuconazole, and Spinosyn, in the products. Pyrimethanil is a fungicide commonly used on seeds, but it is generally regarded as not acutely toxic to humans. Tebuconazole is another fungicide, while the FDA says it is safe for humans, other sources say it could have a moderate acute toxicity in humans. Spinosyn is a class of insecticides with a slight acute toxicity to humans and has been the culprit in a previous cannabis recall in Oregon. In the public health and safety advisory, the CDPHE and DOR say the pesticides were used off-label and none of them are on the approved list of pesticides for cannabis.

The license numbers and batch harvest numbers in question

Israeli Cannabis Brand Tikun Olam Expands to US

By Aaron G. Biros
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Tikun Olam is a Jewish concept that addresses social policy, promoting acts of kindness to better society. In Hebrew, it literally means, “repair of the world.” The company by the same name, Tikun Olam Ltd, and now in the United States as T.O. Global LLC, was the first medical cannabis provider in Israel back in 2007. Working with patients, doctors and nurses in clinical trials, they developed 16 strains over the last decade that target alleviating symptoms of specific ailments.

Tel Aviv, Israel, where Tikun Olam has a dispensary

In November 2016, they launched their United States brand, Tikun, in the Delaware medical cannabis program with their partner, First State Compassion Center, a vertically integrated business of cultivation, extraction and retail in Wilmington. After the success of their pilot program, Tikun announced their expansion into the Nevada market with their licensed partner, CW Nevada LLC. Tikun is leveraging its experience with clinical trials and medical research to launch a line of cannabis products focused on health and wellness in the United States. According to Stephan Gardner, chief marketing officer at Tikun Olam, they have the largest collection of medical cannabis data in the world. “Tikun Olam started out as a non-profit, working to bring medication to patients in Israel,” says Gardner. “Opening nursing clinics gave us a tremendous amount of knowledge and data to work on the efficacy of strains developed specifically for targeting symptoms associated with certain conditions.” For example, their strain, Avidekel, was developed years ago as the first high-CBD strain ever created.

cannabis close up
The strain Avidekel being grown in Israel.

In a single-strain extraction, Avidekel has been used to successfully mitigate the symptoms associated with neurological conditions, like epilepsy in children, and they have the data to demonstrate that efficacy. “The American market needs some sort of guidance on how these cannabinoid and terpene profiles in certain strains can truly assist patients,” says Gardner. “We have been tracking and monitoring our patients with clinical and observational data in one, six month and annual follow ups, which are data we can use to guide the needs in the US.”

Their expansion strategy focuses heavily on the health benefits of their strains, not necessarily targeting the recreational market. “As a wellness brand in Nevada, we are positioned to work first and foremost in the medical market,” says Gardner. “Our wellness brand can cater to people looking for homeopathic remedies for things like inflammation issues, sleep disorders or pain relief for example,” says Gardner. “You will not see us going out there catering to the truly recreational market; the benefits of what our strains can do is marketed from a wellness perspective.” A cannabis product with high-THC percentages is not unique, says Gardner, but their approach using the entourage effect and proven delivery mechanisms is. “While higher THC might appeal to the rec market, that is not exactly how we will promote and position ourselves,” says Gardner. “We want to be a dominant force in the wellness market.”

Best practices include quality control protocols

That effort requires working within the US regulatory framework, which can be quite complicated compared to their experience in Israel. “We have to understand the Israeli market and American market are completely different due to the regulatory regimes each country has in place,” says Gardner. “We understand the efficacy of these products and want to educate customers on how they might benefit. We don’t want to make claims looking to cure anything, but we found in our data that a lot of symptoms in different ailments, like cancer, PTSD, Crohn’s disease, colitis and IBS, can be alleviated by strains we developed.” In addition to the medical research, they are bringing their intellectual property, cultivation methodologies, evidence-based scientific collaboration and best practices to their partners in the US.

So for Tikun’s expansion in the US, they want to get a medical dialogue going. “We will launch a fully accredited AMA [American Medical Association] program, educating medical practitioners, giving the doctors the understanding of the capabilities of cannabis and what our strains can do,” says Gardner. “We will also share our observational data with doctors so they can work to better guide their patients.” Right now, they are working on the education platform in their pilot program in Delaware. “We plan on using that as a platform to expand into other markets like Nevada,” says Gardner. “And we will be launching the Tikun brand in the Washington market this summer.” Based on the high demand they saw in the Delaware market, Gardner says they plan to launch six unique strains in the American market, with delivery mechanisms like vape products, tinctures, lozenges and topicals in addition to dried flower.

dry cannabis plants
Rows of cannabis plants drying and curing before processing.

While Tikun expands throughout the United States, their sights are set on global expansion, living up to the true meaning of the concept Tikun Olam. They entered a strategic partnership with a licensed producer based in Toronto, bringing their strains, including Avidekel, to the Canadian market. The company they are partnering with, MedReleaf, recently filed for an initial public offering (IPO) on the Toronto stock exchange. Tikun Olam is actively seeking to expand in other parts of the world as well.

Homeland Security Sec. Kelly Says Marijuana is a Gateway Drug

By Aaron G. Biros
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According to The Washington Examiner, Department of Homeland Security secretary John Kelly said that marijuana is a gateway drug during a speech at George Washington University on Tuesday. “And let me be clear about marijuana. It is a potentially dangerous gateway drug that frequently leads to the use of harder drugs,” says Kelly. “[U.S. Customs & Border Protection] will continue to search for marijuana at sea, air and land ports of entry and when found take similar appropriate action.” The DEA recently dropped any mention of the gateway drug theory. Many argue it is a myth propagated by drug war stalwarts and even the National Institute on Drug Abuse won’t call it a gateway drug anymore.

Homeland Security Secretary John Kelly
Photo: Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

During a crime committee meeting this morning, Attorney General Jeff Sessions mentioned a link between the illegal marijuana trade and cartel violence. “We have quite a bit of marijuana being imported by the cartels from Mexico- this is definitely a cartel-sponsored event,” says Sessions. According to The Washington Times, Sessions mentioned violence involving marijuana distribution in the nation’s capital, Washington D.C., where cannabis is legal. “So it remains a significant international criminal organization, the marijuana network,” says Sessions. This is not the first time the Attorney General has suggested a link between the plant and violence. Back in February, Sessions claimed that legal cannabis has led to an increase in violence.

The statements made this morning are the latest in a series of contradictory and uncertain messages on federal cannabis policy by the Trump administration. “DHS personnel will continue to investigate marijuana’s illegal pathways along the network into the U.S., its distribution within the homeland, and will arrest those involved in the drug trade according to federal law,” says secretary Kelly. That message, however, contradicts statements he made earlier in the week.

During a Sunday interview with NBC’s “Meet the Press,” secretary Kelly told Chuck Todd “marijuana is not a factor in the drug war.” In that interview, he went on to add that methamphetamine, heroin and cocaine are the real culprits they are after, noting the high death tolls associated with the drugs and connection to organized crime in Mexico. The Trump administration still has not issued a clear, consistent position on federal cannabis policy.

Canada Releases Proposed Cannabis Legislation

By Aaron G. Biros
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The government of Canada published a press release on April 13th proposing a piece of legislation, the Cannabis Act, which would regulate the industry by July of 2018. The press release puts a heavy emphasis on keeping cannabis away from children, curbing impaired driving and reducing criminal and organized crime profits.

The press release says the legislation would set up a regulatory framework “for controlling the production, distribution, sale and possession of cannabis in Canada.” It would set the minimum age to purchase cannabis at 18, but provinces can increase that minimum age how they see fit. Health Canada, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the Canada Border Services Agency and the Department of Public Safety would be responsible for enforcing the regulations.

Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada
Photo: John McCallum

The Cannabis Act states they plan on implementing a fully functioning regulatory framework by July of 2018. Transporting cannabis across international borders or selling to minors would be serious criminal offenses. If the legislation becomes law, adults could have up to 30 grams of cannabis on their person and grow up to four plants in their home.

Individual provinces would ultimately be the regulating authorities, but if local jurisdictions do not have a regulatory framework in place, the press release says Canadians could purchase cannabis online and have it shipped to them. In addition to establishing the regulatory framework, the Cannabis Act would tighten laws on impaired driving. “Additionally, the proposed legislation would authorize new tools for police to better detect drivers who have drugs in their body,” reads the press release. That would give the police authorization to use oral fluid drug screeners, but cannabis is particularly difficult to detect at low concentrations. It is unclear exactly how that would be enforced and specifically what technology they would use.

In a Facebook post this morning, Justin Trudeau announced the proposed legislation to his followers. “It’s too easy for our kids to get marijuana,” says the Prime Minister. “We’re going to change that.” That mention of keeping cannabis out of reach of the Canadian youth is heavily emphasized in the press release as well.

Pennsylvania Temporary Rules for Doctors Released

By Aaron G. Biros
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Pennsylvania Department of Health Secretary Dr. Karen Murphy recently released a draft of temporary regulations for physicians, asking for feedback via a survey from the medical community. “The process for a patient to obtain medical marijuana will begin with the physician, so it’s vital to ensure that our regulatory process for those physicians is open and transparent,” says Secretary Murphy. “Our focus remains to implement a patient-focused medical marijuana program that gives help to those who need it, and these temporary regulations mark an important step forward in achieving that goal.” The temporary rules, published on April 11th, outline physician and practitioner registration, patient certifications, physician training and other key regulations.

Steve Schain, Esq. practicing at Hoban law Group

In the temporary rules lie some stipulations for doctors, which seem intended to limit corruption or financial conflicts of interest. According to Steven Schain, Esq., consumer finance litigation, banking law and cannabis law expert practicing with Hoban Law Group, the market’s growth will hinge on doctor participation. “The entire program will rise and fall based on the speed in which we involve doctors,” says Schain. “If the doctors don’t certify for medical conditions and make recommendations, the market won’t go anywhere.” Pennsylvania’s program, under the current language, requires doctors to issue patient certifications, similar to what other states might call a doctor recommendation or prescription.

According to Schain, other states with similarly worded regulations experience a lack of physician participation, and tepid market growth at best. “If you look at New York, New Jersey or Maryland, they run into issues where there just is no incentive for doctors to participate,” says Schain. “If you look at the existing language of the regulations, there is no financial incentive for doctors to get involved, they can’t charge for a recommendation, which is good and bad.”

“The good part is it reinforces that doctors can’t really be a financial backer of a grow operation or a dispensary,” says Schain. Under the current language, physicians can’t solicit, accept or offer any form of compensation from any patient, prospective patient, caregiver or anyone involved in a medical cannabis business if they intend to register with the Department to issue patient certifications for cannabis. “Some doctors thought this would be a cottage industry for them, it’s not.” Doctors are also not allowed to advertise as a practice issuing patient certifications for cannabis. “Another benefit of the language in the proposed regulations is the continuing care of a physician,” says Schain. “They want the people doing the bulk of referring or recommendations to be primary care physicians. Those are the people doing most of the recommendations, as it should be.” 

Those rules contrast starkly with what many are familiar with in California’s regulations where doctors could advertise freely and charge fees without the need for ongoing care. “Looking at previous regulations in a state like California, where there were no requirements for ongoing care, we saw doctors making a business out of writing recommendations for cannabis,” says Schain. “The PA regulations are much stricter, which I think is great.”

In addition to those preventative measures, the temporary rules require physicians to actively use the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program. This means doctors must consider a patient’s history of controlled substance prescriptions to see if that might impact their medical cannabis use. Doctors have to take this into account before issuing or modifying a patient certification. The rules also provide for a 4-hour training course, required for all physicians seeking to register as a practitioner who can certify patients for medical cannabis use. The Department of Health expects the program will be fully implemented by 2018.

DoJ Task Force Moves to Review Federal Cannabis Policy

By Aaron G. Biros
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In a memo sent throughout the Department of Justice on April 5th, attorney general Jeff Sessions outlines the establishment of the Department’s Task Force on Crime Reduction and Public Safety. That task force, largely focused on violent crime, is supposed to find ways that federal prosecutors can more effectively reduce illegal immigration, violent crimes and gun violence.

The task force is made up of subcommittees, according to the memo, and one of them is focused on reviewing federal cannabis policy. “Task Force subcommittees will also undertake a review of existing policies in the areas of charging, sentencing, and marijuana to ensure consistency with the Department’s overall strategy on reducing violent crime and with Administration goals and priorities,” the memo reads. “Another subcommittee will explore our use of asset forfeiture and make recommendations on any improvements needed to legal authorities, policies, and training to most effectively attack the financial infrastructure of criminal organizations.” Those existing policies that Sessions refers to in the memo could very well be the 2013 Cole Memorandum, an Obama administration decree that essentially set up a framework for states with legal cannabis laws to avoid federal enforcement of the Controlled Substances Act.

In the past, Sessions has said he thinks the Cole Memo is valid, but remains skeptical of medical cannabis. In the last several months, comments made by Sessions and White House press secretary Sean Spicer have sparked outrage and growing fears among stakeholders in the cannabis industry, including major business players and state lawmakers. As a general feeling of uncertainty surrounding federal cannabis policy grows, many are looking for a safe haven, which could mean looking to markets outside of the U.S., like Canada, for example.

Sen. Jeff Sessions (R-AL)
Photo: Gage Skidmore, Flickr

Washington State’s former Attorney General Rob McKenna, Washington State’s former Chief Deputy Attorney General Brian Moran, and Maryland’s former Chief Deputy Attorney General Kay Winfree recently went on the record identifying the BioTrack THC traceability system as fully compliant with the Cole Memo. “The key to meeting the requirements of the Cole Memorandum is ‘both the existence of a strong and effective state regulatory system, and an operation’s compliance with that system’,” says the former attorney general and chief deputy attorneys general in a press release. “As described above, Washington State has a robust, comprehensive regulatory scheme that controls the entire marijuana supply chain.

The email sent to Colorado prosecutor Michael Melito

The flagship component of this regulatory scheme is the WSLCB’s seed to sale inventory system, the BioTrackTHC Traceability System.” Those commendations from a former attorney general could provide some solace to business operating with the seed-to-sale traceability software.

Still though, worries in the industry are fueled by speculation and a general lack of clarity from the Trump Administration and the Department of Justice. In an email obtained by an open records request and first reported by the International Business Times, a DEA supervisor asked a Colorado prosecutor in the state attorney general’s office about a number of cannabis-related prosecutions. The DEA supervisor asked for the state docket numbers of a handful of cases, including one involving cannabis being shipped out of state, according to The Denver Post. “Some of our intel people are trying to track down info regarding some of DEA’s better marijuana investigations for the new administration,” reads the email. “Hopefully it will lead to some positive changes.” So far, only speculations have emerged pertaining to its significance or lack thereof and what this could possibly mean for the future of federal cannabis policy.

Dolphin-Safe Cannabis Certification Helps Consumers Shop Wisely

By Aaron G. Biros
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Editor’s note: This was an April Fool’s article- there is not an actual dolphin-safe certification for cannabis cultivators.


In Eugene, Oregon, many consumers are looking to a new certification to make sure their cannabis products are safe for the environment. The Dolphin-Safe™ Cannabis Certification gives consumers the reassurance that their cannabis is grown without harming the aquatic mammals.

According to The Guardian, a dolphin’s brain is roughly 25% heavier than the average human brain. The marine mammals have a gamut of feeding strategies and multiple reports confirm they can use tools to solve problems. One tool they don’t have in their repertoire is the ability to make sure consumers shop with their health in mind. That is where the Dolphin-Safe™ Cannabis Certification comes in.

Many stakeholders in the food industry are concerned with animal welfare. Third-party certifications like the SQF certification program can help food brands let their customers know they are keeping animal welfare in mind. Dolphin-Safe™ aims to help consumers achieve that similar peace of mind but with cannabis products.

Adam Jacques, grower and owner of Sproutly, was an early adopter of Dolphin-Safe™. According to Jacques, it is hard to quantify just how some cannabis growers might be harming dolphins- and that is a big part of the problem. “Being a steward of the environment is an integral part of our business,” says Jacques. “We want to be able to say with confidence that no dolphins were harmed in the growing of our cannabis.”

According to Mike Smith of Geek Farms, marine mammal safety awareness should be a fundamental aspect of growing cannabis. “We at Geek Farms believe that the most important thing to cannabis production is keeping the dolphins safe,” says Smith. “We all get so caught up with the THC and CBD factors that we forget the most important part: the dolphins.” Smith and Jacques are simply echoing concerns heard throughout the community in Eugene. This isn’t just a regular third-party certification; this is a full-fledged grassroots movement. “We now use recycled harpoons as garden stakes, a harsh reminder of what we are really fighting for.” For more information, visit DolphinSafeCannabis.com.

Bipartisan Cannabis Reform Effort Unveiled in Congress

By Aaron G. Biros
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According to National Cannabis Industry Association (NCIA) executive director Aaron Smith, seven measures were introduced today at the Capitol, covering a variety of issues that, if signed into law, would ease many of the legal implications on the federal level affecting cannabis businesses in legal states currently.

In a very important development, Rep. Carlos Curbelo (R-FL), a member of the House Ways and Means Committee, joined Rep. Earl Blumenauer as a lead sponsor of the 280E tax reform bill. According to an NCIA press release, that bill is The Small Business Tax Equity Act of 2017 and was introduced in the Senate by Sen. Ron Wyden (D-OR), Sen. Rand Paul (R-KY) and Sen. Michael Bennet (D-CO).

Aaron Smith, executive director of NCIA

That bill gives cannabis businesses in legal states the opportunity to take business deductions like any other legal business. Right now cannabis businesses cannot deduct any expenses related to sales, given its Schedule I status. “Cannabis businesses aren’t asking for tax breaks or special treatment,” says Smith. “They are just asking to be taxed like any other legitimate business.”

Rep. Jared Polis (D-CO) introduced the Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol Act in the House, which would put cannabis in the section of code that regulates intoxicating liquors, essentially giving the ATF oversight authority. “The flurry of bills on the Hill today are a reflection of the growing support for cannabis policy reform nationally,” says Smith. “State-legal cannabis businesses have added tens of thousands of jobs, supplanted criminal markets, and generated tens of millions in new tax revenue. States are clearly realizing the benefits of regulating marijuana and we are glad to see a growing number of federal policy makers are taking notice.”

Rep. Earl Blumenauer (D-OR), Photo: Michael Campbell, Flickr

Sen. Wyden and Rep. Blumenauer introduced The Responsibly Addressing the Marijuana Policy Gap (RAMP) Act, which addresses banking and tax fairness for businesses, civil forfeiture, and drug testing for federal employees. Both Blumenauer and Wyden represent Oregonians, who could benefit tremendously if it becomes legislation. Rep. Blumenauer also introduced The Marijuana Tax Revenue Act, which would put a federal excise tax of initially 10% on cannabis sales, then rising to 25% after five years, according to the NCIA press release.

OLCC Issues First Recreational Cannabis Recall for Oregon

By Aaron G. Biros
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On March 18th, the Oregon Liquor Control Commission (OLCC) issued its first recall for recreational cannabis products. The recall, according to the press release, occurred because an unnamed wholesaler sent cannabis products to a retailer before the pesticide test results were entered into the OLCC Cannabis Tracking System (CTS).


Photo: Michelle Tribe, Flickr

The cannabis grown at Emerald Wave Estate, LLC is said to fail a test for pyrethrins exceeding the Oregon Health Authority (OHA) action level (the action level for pyrethrins is 1 ppm). Pyrethrins are a class of insecticides derived from the chrysanthemum flower. Their toxicity varies a lot depending on exactly what organic compound was used, but has an acute toxicity level that is cause for concern. When exposed to high levels of pyrethrins, people have reported symptoms similar to asthma. Generally, pyrethrins have a low chronic toxicity for humans.

The retailer, Buds 4 U LLC, located in Mapleton, OR, issued a voluntary recall for 82.5 grams of the strain Blue Magoo sold between March 8th and 10th. After finding the failed test results in the CTS, the retailer immediately contacted the OLCC. According to The Portland Tribune, OLCC spokesman Mark Pettinger says the retailer was very cooperative in immediately notifying the OLCC. “The retailer was great,” says Pettinger. “They get the gold star.” The Portland Tribune also says the wholesaler who shipped the cannabis prior to test results being entered is Cascade Cannabis Distributing of Eugene. That mistake could be a violation of Oregon’s regulations, leading to a 10-day closure and up to a $1,650 fine.

According to the press release, the rest of the nine pounds in the batch is on hold “pending the outcome of an additional pesticide retest.” The OLCC encourages consumers to check if their products have the license and product numbers detailed in the press release. They advise consumers who did purchase the affected cannabis to dispose of the product or return it to the retailer. The press release also mentions that they have not received any reports of illness related to the tainted cannabis.

New York Adds Chronic Pain to List of Qualifying Conditions

By Aaron G. Biros
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The New York State Health Department announced last week a series of changes in their medical cannabis program that is expected to increase patient access in more rural parts of the state. The news comes after reports earlier this month highlighting the lackluster state of the market.

The press release announces that the state’s Health Department will add chronic pain as a qualifying condition, effective March 22nd. That rule change came after the Health Department’s two-year report, which recommended conducting a review of evidence for using medical cannabis to treat patients suffering from chronic pain.

In addition to that, physician assistants may now register with the Health Department to certify patients for medical cannabis, given the supervising physician is registered as well. In November of last year, the Health Department announced they would allow nurse practitioners to certify patients. By increasing the number of eligible practitioners, the state hopes to improve patient access across the state, and particularly in rural areas where there are fewer physicians. “Improving patient access to medical marijuana continues to be one of our top priorities, as it has been since the launch of the program,” says Health Commissioner Dr. Howard A. Zucker. “These key enhancements further that goal. Medical marijuana is already making a difference for patients across New York State, and we are constantly evaluating the program to see how we can make it better.”

Photo: Peter McConnochie, Flickr

Speaking with The Buffalo News earlier this month, Ari Hoffnung, president of Vireo Health of New York told reporters that companies are having a hard time getting by in New York’s cannabis industry. “Our company is not close to break-even yet,” says Hoffnung. “And based on my understanding, no one has made a dime here in New York.’’ It is possible that the recent move by the Health Department could increase the size of the market, according to Matt Karnes, founder and managing partner of GreenWave Advisors, based in New York City. “Expanding the list of qualifying conditions to include chronic pain and to allow for nurse practitioners to make a recommendation will serve to jumpstart the fledgling medical marijuana market in New York State,” says Karnes. “Assuming similar chronic pain conditions apply to New York as is the case in other states, we could expect a large increase in the total number of patients.”

At this time, it is unclear exactly how the new regulations will affect the market size, but they can undoubtedly benefit patients seeking medical treatment. Dr. Scott Gottlieb, board-certified anesthesiologist and pain management specialist from Pearl River, New York, is optimistic this will help more patients get the treatment they need. “Having chronic pain added as a diagnosis is tremendously helpful,” says Dr. Gottlieb. “There are a lot of patients that don’t meet the current criteria for a qualifying condition and this will be very beneficial for them.” From his own experience, Dr. Gottlieb says he has found cannabis to be helpful in treating neuropathy (nerve-related pain.) “As a pain management physician we have a large population of patients with recent spinal cord surgery that do require continuous medications,” says Dr. Gottlieb. “It will be nice to have another option as a feasible medical treatment.”